Focus on the textile world: from maximum diversity to carbon fibers
Animal skin has been processed into leather since time immemorial. In ancient times its primary function was to protect people from the cold, but today, most of the world's manufactured leather is used in footwear production, or for applications in the automotive and furniture industry. However, as with all other materials, seams can differ. To obtain a satisfactory final product, it is very important to bear the specific properties of leather in mind during processing, and to select the most appropriate sewing machine needle in each case.
Leather is made from animal skins – specifically, from an animal's so-called dermis. This dermis has a grain side, which gives the leather its smooth surface, and a flesh side, which provides the mechanical strength.
Leather is a natural product, so it has individual characteristics. Every type of leather – according to the position of the animal's ribs – has a fiber direction in which it can be stretched better, but also tears faster. To create products that are as robust (i.e. as tear-resistant) as possible, therefore, processing should always take place counter to the fiber direction. All sections also need to be cut in the fiber direction, even though this procedure requires more material.
When leather is sewn, the seam strength – that is, the durability of the seams – plays an important role. It is mainly influenced by the stitch rating, which corresponds to the number of stitches per centimeter. The higher the rating, the more threads the seam contains, and the higher the thread-related tensile strength of the seam. Maximum strength is obtained when a seam rupture (lateral load) breaks both the leather and the thread simultaneously. In order to achieve maximum seam strength, the stitch length has to be adjusted whenever there are changes in cutting point or thread parameters.
The durability of the seams is also affected by the tear strength of the leather: the larger the cut in the leather caused by the sewing needle, the lower the tensile strength. The needle thickness should therefore always be chosen so that the thread slides freely through the eye of the needle and there is sufficient stability for the sewing process. The selected needle should not be too thick either, to avoid excessively large stitch holes.
Since leather has a different structure in the longitudinal and transverse directions, sewing of leather with a cloth point - depending on the sewing direction – results in a different seam appearance. This is because hair and sweat ducts extend only in the longitudinal direction. To create a consistent seam appearance in all directions, the use of a cutting point is required.
Cutting points are available in many different shapes. In accordance with their geometry and orientation, a defined hole is cut into the leather, enabling the creation of various stitch formations (from straight to slanted) and seam appearances.
The selection of the right point shape depends not only on the desired seam pattern but also on the seam structure – as well as the nature and characteristics of the leather. The following general recommendations can be made:
|Texture of leather||Seam design||Recommended point||Examples of end products|
|Locking and clamping seams||
Needles with low cutting action (SD or R)
|Sraight seams||SD||Fine leather goods,
|Soft and hard leather||
Depending on the desired seam appearance; LR-point most suitable for decorative effects
|Bags, leather clothing, shoes|
|Tougher leather||Locking and clamping seams in footwear (heel seams)
||P-point (stitch holes close under
seam load → high seam strength)
|Hard leather||Significant decorative effects
||P||Belts, upholstered furniture|
|Hard, thick and dry leather
||Straight seams||D||Belts, luggage, heavy shoes|
|All common types of leather||Straight seams with continuous closed appearance
||LL or S||Bags, shoes|
|All common types of leather
||SD or R||Leather apparel|
|All common types of leather||2-needle decorative stitches,
slightly slanting seams
|SAN® 12 LR||Car seats, upholstered furniture, automotive interiors|
|Soft and medium hard leather||2-needle decorative stitches,
|SAN® 12 S||Car seats, upholstered furniture, automotive interiors|
If leather is combined with other materials (e.g. in the automotive sector), the following recommendations apply:
|Material combination||Seam construction||Recommended point||Examples of end products|
|Leather with foam lamination||Decorative seams
||LR, LL, S (depending on desired seam)||Car seats|
Leather with foam lamination
|Locking seams and multidirectional sewing
||R, SD, RG||Car seats|
|Leather / Synthetic Leather||Decorative seams||LR, LL, S (depending on desired seam)||Car seats|
|Leather / Synthetic Leather||Locking seams
||R, SD, RG||Car seats|
|Leather / felt||All seams
||D, DH||Automotive interiors|
|Leather / textile and synthetic leather / fabric||All seams||R, RG, FFG||Car seats|
The GEBEDUR® needles developed by Groz-Beckert with their titanium nitride coating are also ideal for sewing leather. The extremely hard surface coating protects the looper point and protects the needles from wear and damage. This results in longer cutting edge service life and an overall increase in productivity.
Leather will always be a popular material, used in many areas. Whether for protective, professional or functional clothing, for accessories such as handbags, purses or gloves, whether in sport as a coating for balls and sports equipment, or as an indispensable material in the furniture and automotive industry – perfectly stitched leather will always find an application.
Would you like to learn more about the right needles and points for sewing leather? The Groz-Beckert experts look forward to hearing from you!