Groz-Beckert KG

Newsletter 2 | 2010

The Competence Centre Nonwovens in the TEZ – Creating Synergies Together

The new Technology and Development Centre (TEZ) combines the textile competencies knitting, weaving, tufting, sewing and nonwovens under one roof, and enables the individual divisions to cooperate intensively with regard to both technology and organisation. Products made from various different textile surfaces can be viewed and optimised holistically. With the usual discretion, customer problems are solved jointly and comprehensively.



Hot gas filter hose


Nomex fabric
125 g/m² weight - close-woven

Nomex fibers
200gr/m² weight per side

Fiber gauge 2,8 dtex at 51 mm fiber length


Overly high loss of tear strength after needling

Problem solution

Optimised needling parameters and optimised structural design of the product;
use of gentle needles with HL barb

General steps when carrying out an experiment:

  • Analysis of structure:
    - Layer structure per side
    - Fiber gauge, cross-section, length, crimp type
    - Weight, density, surface, etc.
    - base material (type, structure, weight, etc.)
  • Choice of needle types for the experiment series (barb size, layout, form, number, gauge and form of working part, etc.)
  • Definition of needling parameters (E/cm², penetration depth, warping, layer structure per side, etc.)
  • Definition of test methods and test sequences (e.g. semitests after individual layer needling, number of tests according to statistics plans, type of tests, such as warping, air permeability, density, surface monitoring and evaluation, etc.)
  • Definition of further final tests with the user


Tests carried out on needled product:

  • Tear strength (longitudinal/transverse)
  • Delamination
  • Air permeability
  • Thickness
  • Density
  • Dimensional stability (shape retention)
This is just one example of many options that Groz-Beckert can offer its partners.

Nonwovens – Groz-Beckert offers comprehensive service

Customer experiments in detail

Needling machine facts and figures:


Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG



Stroke rate

1,375 strokes/min

Working width

1,500 mm

Needle bar stroke

60 mm

Possible gauge

2,000 needles/lfm

Single/double board operation above


3,000 needles/lfm

Single/quadruple board operation above/below

simultaneous, alternating, tandem


5,036 needles/lfm


8,000 needles/lfm


ALPA design
(aluminium-polyamide), transverse grooved

Feed system

Nonwoven feed system Type CBF

Removal system

Winder Type SW 15


Dilo machine

Measuring equipment for testing air permeability:


Textest Instruments


Air permeability FX 3300


for air permeability tests


Measuring equipment for testing tensile strength and stretch:




Materials testing machine 1435


For testing tensile strength and stretch


Measuring equipment for determining grammage:




Scales TE 212


Grammage determination

A device for measuring thickness is also available.

Process-water analysis in detail

Within the Jet Strips product group, analyses or process water can help to improve the production process. In the production of spunlace products, the quality of the process water plays a crucial role: its consistency influences the service life of various machine components and also that of the jet strips.

Furthermore, the process water not only influences hygiene article production but also has a decisive effect on the quality of the end product. Hygienically perfect water thus has to be used. As part of a comprehensive lab analysis at Groz-Beckert, the process water is examined with regard to important hydrochemical parameters.

Sample parameters

very acidic/slightly acidic/slightly alkaline/very alkaline soft water / medium hard water / hard water / very hard water recommended / pH range / recommended water hardness range

Needle tests in detail

In this sector, the finished felting needle is tested for its mechanical properties. These include bending behaviour, hardness, layer thicknesses, surface roughness, barb dimensions, SEM, photographic documentation, and much more.

These procedures are mainly used to evaluate the surfaces of the needle and the fiber material. They occur during wear analyses of needles, customer problem documentation and new developments.

Photograph of an RF barb using a scanning electron microscope (SEM):

Unused barb
Contaminated barb


One of the main sources of mechanical load that occurs during the needling of nonwovens is deflection forces influencing the needle and especially the working part. In the diagram below this has been made visible. The load is produced by the material that requires needling, and is constantly subtracted. In the specifications for felting and fork needles, Groz-Beckert has stipulated the maximum deflection of the needles up to breakage. This deflection is established by means of a bending test. 

Wherever new developments, further developments or the search for solutions to problems are involved, Groz-Beckert is a strong and supportive partner to its customers - backed up by years of experience, know-how and, of course, the new Technology and Development Centre.